Collection: PART 3


Embroidery making process


Muse - Marry May Morris






BRAND Reputation Management, (n.d.). (Mary) May Morris. [image] Available at: [Accessed Apr. 2017].

Frearson, K. (n.d.). May Morris by Mary Ann Sloane. [image] Available at: [Accessed Apr. 2017]. (2017). Mary (May) Morris - Victoria and Albert Museum. [online] Available at: [Accessed Apr. 2017].

"The daughter of William Morris, she studied textile arts at the South Kensington School of Design from 1880-1883 and was Director of the embroidery department at Morris & Co. from 1885 until about 1896. May Morris was active in the Royal School of Art Needlework (now the Royal School of Needlework) and an influential embroiderer and jewellery designer. She founded the Women's Guild of Arts in 1907 and remained its president until 1935."

She was one of the first women in craftsmanship - the whole concept of Arts and Crafts was dominated by men. She was strong enough to pursue her career in crafts. She was consciuos of the role of crafts in modern societies and therefore she is an inspiration for a muse that could wear my design for this project - a modern May Morris - a person conscious of the choice of crafts over mass production and someone daring enough to seek sustainability in crafts.


Making process - documentation




Nalbinding and stitching - all pieces secured by hand - cloud like effect of texture

Sketchbook page by Mark Fast - colours and markmaking


Dynamic mark making that looks like fringes or embroidery, delicate colors but so many of them that they become vibrant - that is a good approach to my color scheme - not too much dark but more of light tones in a variety.

From: Davies, H. (2013). Fashion designers' sketchbooks. 1st ed. London: Laurence King Publishing Ltd.

The Slow Fashion Movement - essay

"[...]we must re-design the current unsustainable practices in society, including the fashion industry. This change, if achieved, is likely to result in a gradual return to equilibrium, where societal behaviour is not in conflict with natural resources, and the fashion industry can carry on without compromising the health of the people and our planet."

Principles of Slow Fashion (according to the essay):

1. Seeing the big picture

2. Slowing down consumption

3. Diversity

4. Respecting People

5. Acknowledging human needs

6. Building relationships

7. Resourcefulness

8. Maintaining quality and beauty

9. Profitability

10. Practicing Consciousness

from: Dickson, M., Cataldi, C. and Grover, C. (2016). The Slow Fashion Movement. [online] Available at: [Accessed Mar. 2017].

The ones I have highlighted are those that are most coherent to my project and that I am fulfilling throughout my work. The points are the ones I can fulfill now, as a student, but as I progress onto the next levels of my education I could be able to fulfill more of these points. I would really like to take the slow fashion ideology further, into my working ethics.

Cy Twombly - brushstrokes and paint stains look like yarns or fringes; painted air effect




all images from: (2017). Cy Twombly - 109 Artworks, Bio & Shows on Artsy. [online] Available at: [Accessed Mar. 2017].

Own resources - brushstrokes and painting the air


This is my own image of my colour scheme for a painting I did quite a while ago which reminds me of fringes, because of the dynamic markmaking and of the  act of painting the air (very delicate movements of lines, composition) with the culture of hands (I did it by myself). The brushstrokes look like fine wool on the pictures underneath. Colour scheme is coherent with mine - the idea of using tones of colors from my color scheme to show painting.

Visit to a butique of Harris Tweed - it was prohibited to take pictures indside - incredibly soft fabric, texture of air, cloud-like


Brand research - Harris Tweed - Crafts and machinery working together - Sustainability


from: The Harris Tweed Authority. (2017). The Harris Tweed Authority. [online] Available at: [Accessed Mar. 2017].


Brand research - Harris Tweed - Crafts and machinery working together - Sustainability


This particular image looks like a huge brushstroke going through the air - made from wool. I think it really represents my thinking and I find it's dynamism inspiring, like fringes or huge soft blocks of merino wool.


all images from: The Harris Tweed Authority. (2017). The Harris Tweed Authority. [online] Available at: [Accessed Mar. 2017].


Science Museum - Historical context research - first years of industrialization


Smaller version of the huge red engine.




images from the exhibition James Watt & Our World in Turbine Hall in Science Museum

images from exhibition taken by me

The upper image shows power looms at Swaison, Lancashire, 1834 - the mill was unusual in bringing together spinning and weaving cotton in a single factory. Power looms were those that Luddities were destroying - understanding and visualizing history.

The lower image is from Harle Syke Mill showing power looms. This shed, one of two, had 900 power looms that were powered by the red steam engine on the other picture. It alll started from textiles factories - now I am making textiles produced in a different, not industrialized way, tension between crafts and machinery.


Science Museum - Historical context research - first years of industrialization


Women preparing otton for spinning at Swainson Birley Cotton Mill, 1834. Who would wear this - muse inspiration, hand working woman.


Stephen Cripps - Dancing Machines Performance - a way of building tension between machinery and human actions


In this performance he become a motor for the scrap pieces of metal he was attatched to and guild a machine-like sculpture with himself in the middle that was exploding and destroying some elements. This reminds me of the Luddities and their actions of destruction and creates a bridg between those historical references and modernity. The whole dust and steam around looks like painting the air in a very dynamic and expressive way. The smoke is painting the air with a human element in the middle - visualization of my thinking.

from: Cripps, S., Cripps, S. and Harvey, J. (1992). Stephen Cripps. 1st ed. S.l.: ACME.


Stephen Cripps - his working space remind me of my grandfather's resale shop



Industrial mess like in my grandfather's shop. Steel objects, a lot of wires, work - creative work as craftsmanship.

from: Cripps, S., Cripps, S. and Harvey, J. (1992). Stephen Cripps. 1st ed. S.l.: ACME.


Nylon experiment - yarn that is an invention of mass production in reaction to the air - cloud like effect of air - tension


source: image taken by me


Combining pieces of scrap metal, machines with useless technology - ideas for print development


credits: own images

This is what I was drawing to develop the idea of painting/printing the air with a print/painting that after made on a plain textie piece that was knitted is unraveled and knitted again. Way of building tension of industrialism and craft (unravelled by hand) and referencing historical background (Luddities).


Luddities - breaking machines - it is not anti-industrialism

"As the Industrial Revolution began, workers naturally worried about being displaced by increasingly efficient machines. But the Luddites themselves “were totally fine with machines,” says Kevin Binfield, editor of the 2004 collection Writings of the Luddites. They confined their attacks to manufacturers who used machines in what they called “a fraudulent and deceitful manner” to get around standard labor practices. “They just wanted machines that made high-quality goods,” says Binfield, “and they wanted these machines to be run by workers who had gone through an apprenticeship and got paid decent wages. Those were their only concerns.”"

"[...] a young apprentice named Ludd or Ludham was working at a stocking frame when a superior admonished him for knitting too loosely. Ordered to “square his needles,” the enraged apprentice instead grabbed a hammer and flattened the entire mechanism. The story eventually made its way to Nottingham, where protesters turned Ned Ludd into their symbolic leader."

from: Conniff, R. (2017). What the Luddites Really Fought Against. [online] Smithsonian. Available at: [Accessed Mar. 2017].

This historical reference links to my idea of breaking machines as a way of creating tension between human and a machinery. I did not thought about Luddities when I did it, but their protests match to my concept well - they did not act against industrialization, but to use machines in a right way, without displacing humans and to create high quality goods. Craftsmanship opposite to machines. The quote about too loose knitting links to my idea of holes in a sample as well.


Tom Duimstra - Colors matching my color scheme, ideas for mark making




Tom Duimstra. (2017). Tom Duimstra. [online] Available at: [Accessed Mar. 2017].


"The use of the word ‘processes’ relates to the authors belief that it is how fashion is produced that needs to change in order to improve environmental and social issues."

"Both the fashion designer and the wearer should be equally engaged in the lifecycle of a garment and that examples of inspired techniques and processes can be located within the historic traditions of craftsmanship in the luxury sector."



Gwilt, A. (2011). Revealing Historic Traditions of Craftsmanship in the Context of Sustainable Fashion. In: Fashion & Luxury: Between Heritage & Innovation, 1st ed. [online] Paris: Institut Français de la Mode (IFM), pp.19-24. Available at: [Accessed Mar. 2017].

For me it is not the luxury but sector of crafts that informed my idea, but rather the processes and engagement into social or environmental issues.



Historical context - Craftsmanship in the core of interest - The Guild of Handicraft


Workers at Chipping Camden Guild's House


A boy at Chipping Camden in a disguise - visible textures that look like nalbinding.


MacCarthy, F. (1981). The simple life. 1st ed. London: Lund Humphries.

Historical context: Idea of creating a utopia of craft. The weak point of it was that they wanted to go back in time and not further. The idea of sustainable slow fashion based on craftsmanship has something to do with building a utopia of production process, though it can not be done by abandoning machinery, rathere by cooperating with it.

credits: (2013). Cotswold Guild of Handicrafts. [online] Available at: [Accessed Mar. 2017].


Historical context - Art Worer's Guild

"It has represented traditional skills when they might have disappeared, but it has always maintained a dialogue with modern design."

from: Limited, T.P. (2016) The Art Workers’ guild | history. Available at: (Accessed: March 2017).

Ideas of Arts and Crafts Movement kept in modernity. It is tricky to make it look like it is craft at the first sight, it has to be modern and make statement to be successful.


Garment details - traces of things being worn; irregular stitches and fringed corners



credits: images taken by me

Own old vintage shirt (around 20 years old) I got from my grandmother. Traces on it of being worn and reworked by three generations. Stitches that are visible.


East End Thrift Store - visit to look for textures and old garments


credits: images taken by me

Textures that remind me of a chainmail. Loose reference for textural ideas.


Xuly Bet A/W 1993/4 - a short video from the catwalk

Xuly Bet A/W 1993/4



Black, S. (2005). Knitwear in fashion. London: Thames & Hudson.

Xuly.Bet uses old knitwear, cuts it up and reworks into a new piece, it makes me think of my grandfather who reworked the old. It inspiers me to experiment with knitting on old sweaters. Ideas for experimentation.


Fernand Leger - his works remind me of colourful machines


Ideas for interpretation of shapes of deconstructed machines - it is visible that the shapes are industrial but not too descriptive in it. Combinations of blocky shapes, color blocking.


 Le?ger, F., Cassou, J. and Leymarie, J. (1973). Fernand Leger. London: Thames and Hudson.


Bonotto - examples of textiles - textures, patterns and colours


These two designs look like scrap metal yards I saw on the pictures from "WastedLand". Machinery hidden in a textile piece, crafts, tension between human work and machine work.



Artur Huang, (2016), Bonotto soul,, access: March 2017

Bonotto_official, (2016), Here we are again! Back to the wools,, access: March 2017



"Bonotto’s master craftsmen follow the philosophy of 'craftsmanship above all'. Recuperating older machinery, Bonotto’s fabrics are instilled with a sense of integrity and authenticity that could not be achieved using the latest technology."

from:Giovanni Bonotto The Conversation. (2013). [online] Available at: [Accessed Apr. 2017].

"With the culture of "hands that think" we want to paint the air with our fabrics"


from: LECLAIREUR (2016) BONOTTO – in search of lost time. Available at: (Accessed: March 2017).

Giovanni Bonotto described painting the air as creating magic of craft in a piece. This relates to my thinking also because I want to present a solution to the air contamination, which is more realistic interpretation of this quote, though relates to my project on more than pne meaning. Painting the air is seeking for utopia and my project has this kind of trajectory as well. Presenting ideas for slow fashion is a bit like presenting futuristic utopiean vision. Creating own approach to slow making.


Bonotto - Slow Factory

Practitioner (task 1): Giovanni Bonotto and his company

Amazing factory that focuses on craft and slow fashion rather than mass production. They use own very special machines that make a fabric with imperfections, make the fabric look a bit old. These techniques are so rare that it is impossible to reproduce then on a mass scale. Machines are hand made and are working with harmony alongside craftsmen - this makes me think of a symbiosis between man and a machine. It sounds utopian but this company is a proof that it is possible. They cherish the craft without abandoning the machines completely. They are ecologial too, as the machines are only hand-manipulated. No electricity involved. The fibres are ecological too. Inspiration to pursue my own understanding of slow fashion and exploration of crafts.

website of the company:


Technique research - Sprang - Ancient technique of net making

Technique research - Sprang - Ancient technique of net making

Technique that  is rarely used nowadays and dates back as far as nalbinding as well. Another craftsmanship technique I could ue to emphasize the differences in production. Very time consuming.

Process (task1): Sprang


Eduardo Paolozzi - collages


The upper one looks like a factory with huge chimneys and the mark making reminds machinery - mark making ideas for future references - dynamism of marks, abstract marks reminding me of cables from my grandfathers shop, density - industrial mess. The second one shows the connection of human and machine and visually represents the pollution - machines that have an impact on humans much broader than it was ever thought.



Eduardo Paolozzi - Witechapel Gallery - texture inspiration - association to machinery


Eduardo Paolozzi was fascinated by the connection of human and machinery, especially in his early works. He used parts of old machines in his sculptures. His drawings and textile work is also focused on machinery and the connection of human and machine. This reminded me of my previous research about the way we changed the landscape with machines and factories. This surfaces also remind me of textures of chainmail or scrap pieces of steel - using elements of machinery to highlight the industrialization, but in a way that is not too descriptive.

Practitioner (task1): Eduardo Paolozzi

image credits:

all images from the exhibition taken by me


Lucet - Tutorial of medieval cord making

Nalbinding - Tutorial

Nalbinding - Forgotten technique; "mother" of knitting

Medieval times - era of crafts, connection to armor and the craft behind it - idea of using crafts as a way of building an alternative to the mass production. Time consuming techniques. Nalbinding - mother of knitting. 

Processes (task1): nalbinding, lucet


Medieval Knitting - Idea of craftmanship as a way to reduce air pollution

Royal Armoury Collection - Chainmail - Texture of knit


These examples were taken out of the exhibition so that I could toutch them and observe closely. The second image shows a way of tighting the chainmail to the body - adjusting to the shape - a leather laced up detail. Also used on other parts of the body if needed.

Material (task 1): chainmail, visible threads


images taken by me


Frank Stella - Sculptures - Visual Association





Representation of armour - silver pieces of metal, representation of textures - coloured parts, pop-out elements.

Practitioner (task1): Frank Stella

Processes (task 1): popping out, twisting, bending, transforming


Stella, F. (2000) Frank Stella: Recent work. Locks Gallery.







"In the meantime buildings in Cracow begun to be covered with mold and mushrooms. Towers and domes of churches were slowly covered with industrial pollution. In the air of Cracow, which never was in a good condition, the amount of fluor and sulphlur bioxygen increased. Most important buildings from post-war industrialization that was hailed during that time, begun to be a serious danger  for both monuments and citizens in Cracow. [...] Corossion appeared on the famous roof of Sigismund's Chapel at Wawel Castel. Old stone embelishmants on houses begun to dissolve and crack."

translated by me, from:

Bujak, A. and Piekarczyk, J. (1995) Stary Krakow. 3rd edn. Warszawa: Sport i Turystyka.

Practitioner (task1): A.Bujak

Cracow is very old, historical city, so an armour gives the spirit of it well. The way that air pollution destroys the monuments is also an issue for all paintings and sculptures in museums - the air gets inside of the buildings by ventilation. This is only how it works with iron, brass, copper or stone - let alone human skin. Makes me also think of the fact that the things we make start to work against human - hypernature.


Polish armour



Sikora, R. (no date) Elementy uzbrojenia. Available at: (Accessed: 20 February 2017).






Inspiration from Cambridge - Steel applied to the body, protecting from evil - Armour



Helmets of knights look like gas masks that people wear to protect from air pollution. Do not make it too historical - shapes ideas; armor made of pieces joined together.


Wagner, E., Drobna, Z. and Durdik, J. (1962) Medieval costume, armour and weapons, 1350-1450 / selected and illustrated by Eduard Wagner ; text by Zoroslava Drobna & Jan Durdik ; translated by Jean Layton. Translated by Jean Layton. New edition edn. London: London : Hamlyn.

Originally published: Dakers, 1958

CSM Library - Steel Research - possibilities of using steel - images taken by me




Various approaches to using steel - try them out when making samples - Processes (task1): twisting wire, looping it, making circle.

Materials (task1): springs, nets, steel ropes, steel knits


Material research - steel


Chosen material to research: Steel

most important properties:

-had a magical meaning - protected from evil (link to the sculpture "Witch" by Jean Tinguely) - protection

-100% recyclable and natural - taken from earth; by melting can be easily transformed into any other object

-links to my grandfather's reseale shop and Steel Mill in Cracow

-used for ages, old

-question appears: how to apply steel to the body?


Christopher Kane - SS 2017 - thinking of cables and wires in a form arund the body




The fluid, caligraphical lines on these garments remind me of cables and wire that I was looking at before in my research. The flowers are a connection to Astroemeria that was harvested in the resale shop before machines were sold there.


Practitioner (task1): Christopher Kane


Christopher Kane (no date) Available at: (Accessed: 16 February 2017).


Jean Tinguely - Totem - shilouette ideas


Jean Tinguely - Kinetic Sculptures



Tinguely, J. (1976) Dessins et gravures pour les sculptures: catalogue of an exhibition at the Cabinet des estampes, Musée d’art et d’histoire, Geneve, 25 Juin-3 Octobre, 1976. Geneva (Switzerland). Musée d’art et d’histoire: Geneva: The Museum.


Jean Tinguely - Witch - shilouette ideas


Jean Tinguely was using parts of scrap metal to create his own sculptures. These two above - witch and totem remind me of human beings covered with steel, but not as robots, but as transformed hypernature. They also have another connection - to medieval witchcraft or beliefs that included nature as part of magical rituals or tools. This link reminds me also of the picture from the book "A Natural Order" of a man using Toyota to ploungh a field. Medieval ages in a time of machines.

Ideas for shilouettes - circles, elements of twisted metal and wire - idea of experimentation on the body with pieces of machinery.

Witchcraft or medieval beliefs included plants as elements of rituals (rules, so a certain technology) which reminded me of what was in the building before - greenhouse. Man made factory for plants.

Practitioner (task1): Jean Tinguely


Tinguely, J. (1976) Dessins et gravures pour les sculptures: catalogue of an exhibition at the Cabinet des estampes, Musée d’art et d’histoire, Geneve, 25 Juin-3 Octobre, 1976. Geneva (Switzerland). Musée d’art et d’histoire: Geneva: The Museum.


CSM Green Week - Greenpeace Talk - Aurora Project

Charity research (task1) - Greenpeace - a charity that raises awareness about changes in nature that a human makes.

The general topic of this talk was not related to  my research so far, the reason why I decided to use this is because the design of a giant polar bear links to machinery - it is also a sort of a machine when it comes to design. It is huge and constructed from steel elements. A way of using metal in a awarness-raising project by turning it into a human powered machine - human powering change.


Nicholas Faure - Landscape A


New natural landscape is the one that is changed by humans and technology. It is inevitable to use machines and technology in modern life - it become too convenient. Traces of technology are on each of these pictures - from obvious associations to smaller details. Machinery creates the world we live in - the impact of industrialization on landscapes, how it changed the world around.

Girardin, D., Faure, N., Ibelings, H. and Giradin, D. (2006) Landscape A, Nicolas Faure [on the occasion of the exhibition Nicolas Faure, landscape A, Musée de l?Elysée, Lausanne, 17 November 2005 - 5 February 2006]. Berlin, Germany: Steidl, Gerhard Druckerei und Verlag.


Edward Burtynski - Manufactured Landscapes


A real industrial mess - loads of machine made elements. Textural inspiration - images similar in textures to my grandfather's shop - many steel elements next to each other.

image credits:

Pauli, L., Haworth-Booth, M., Baker, K. and Torosian, M. (2003) Manufactured landscapes: The photographs of Edward Burtynsky ; [ ... In conjunction with the exhibition manufactured landscapes: The photographs of Edward Burtynsky... National gallery of Canada, Ottawa, 31 January to 4 may 2003; Art Gallery of Ontario, T. 4th edn. Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada in association with Yale University Press.


Edward Burtynski - Manufactured Landscapes Trailer

Manufactured landscapes - a landscape caused by mass production - the effect that consumerism has on the world, an issue so close to fashion where new trends are launched each season. The documentary made me realize the scale - huge factories, huge pollution. 


Edward Burtynski - Manufactured Landscapes Speech

Edward Burtynski - Manufactured Landscapes


image credits:

Pauli, L., Haworth-Booth, M., Baker, K. and Torosian, M. (2003) Manufactured landscapes: The photographs of Edward Burtynsky ; [ ... In conjunction with the exhibition manufactured landscapes: The photographs of Edward Burtynsky... National gallery of Canada, Ottawa, 31 January to 4 may 2003; Art Gallery of Ontario, T. 4th edn. Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada in association with Yale University Press.


Edward Burtynski photographs show the amount of pollution in the environment that is produced by factories. Majority of the trash on this photographs is either alluminium or steel - products produced in the mills in my home town too. Industrial mess. Traces of industrial revolution and consumerism. Rich textures and details.

Practitioner (task1): Edward Burtynski

Process (task1): making industrial mess


"Lewis Mumford (1895-1990) made a distinction between tools and machines in which the user directly manipulates tools, while machines are more independent of the skill of the user"

"Mumford claims that the earliest "machine" in human history was the organization of large numbers of people for manual labor in moving earth for dams or irrigation projects in the earliest civilizations such as Egypt, ancient Sumer in Iraq, or ancient China. Mumford calls mass organized labor "the megamachine". Jacques Ellul considers patterns of rule following behavior or "technique" to be the essence of technology. [...] Ellul's "technique" mentioned above is a prime example of another definition of technology. This treats technology as rules rather than tools."


Dusek, V. (2006) Philosophy of technology: An introduction. 2nd edn. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell (an imprint of John Wiley & Sons Ltd).

Technology is not machines - it is rules that result in certain goal. We make the rules, the way we use machines is crucial for production. This is the center of any change in this topic.

Practitioner (task1): Lewis Mumford



Wiktor Gorka's propaganda poster - we work threesome but we do work for twelve - speed of work and overwhelming amount of mass production

wiktor gorka plakat pinterest.jpg.1

Wiktor Gorka's propaganda poster - our pride are soviet constructions

budowle socjalizmu pinterest.jpg.1

Historical context: Ideology of Soviet work makes me think of huge effect it had on the environment. Gloryfying huge factories and work made there but underneath the detrimental impact on environment. Make as much as possible - we still live by it, but do we really need it? How can I say no to that? Is there even a way to do it?

Processes: mass production, mass polluting

Practitioner (task1): Wiktor Gorka

Images credit:

Górka, W. (1952) Budowle socjalizmu nasz? dum? [poster]. Available at: (Accessed: 10 February 2017).

Górka, W. (1952b) Pracujemy w trójk? budujemy za 12-stu [poster]. Available at: (Accessed: 10 February 2017).


Images of Aluminium Mill in Skawina - Stills from the movie

Inspiration from the picture: wires - use them in samples


Images of Aluminium Mill in Skawina - Stills from the movie

Aluminium Mill in Skawina (area of cracow) - historical images - the reason for enormous air, soil and water pollution in the 80s

"Alarm" a report about the effect that the Aluminium Mill has on citizens in the area - dramatic effects on water, soil and animals

The other Mill that my grandfather was buying machines from was Aluminium Mill in Skawina (area near Cracow very close to my house). This mill caused major phosphor contamination in the 80s. It is at least disturbing to realize that this is the area where I was living for 15 years without even knowing it. This mill produced mostly aluminium cables and wires - inspiration to use wire and cables .

Processes (task1): contaminaing, destroying environment, working

Materials (task1): aluminium

short movies credit:

Mateusz Kurlit (2014) NPA SKAWINA - 60 LAT HUTY ALUMINIUM W SKAWINIE. Available at: (Accessed: 10 February 2017).

drosiczk (2010) Polska Kronika Filmowa - 1980 48B. Available at: (Accessed: 10 February 2017).


It was (just as Nowa Huta) an element of of "gift" from Soviet government to the people. An ambitious plan to develop the region. This mill is still working as well, the most dangerous processes were banned. Ideology of continuous work, never stopping factory.

information credit:

NH (2010) ‘7 stycznia 1981 r zamkniecie huty aluminium w Skawinie’,, 7 January. Available at:,nId,1584722 (Accessed: 10 February 2017).



Grandfathers' working place


This particular image makes me think of all the small tools that were gathered in this room. Many small steel elements - bolts, cables, wires (materials (task1)). Idea of using them in samples.


Grandfather's resale shop


Grandfathers' resale shop - one of five corridors filled with machines and electricity



Grandfathers' working place


Images from private albums.

This place is my personal link to the matter of pollution in Cracow (and therefore environmental issues as well) and a place I remember from childhood as mysterious, scary yet fascinating and rich in unusual, inspiring objects of all kinds. I was told by my father that part of these objects were taken from the factories (especially Nowa Huta - steel factory) and sold after renovation. Recycling of objects that already contaminated the environment. Taking care of discarded, forgtten, fixing by hand.

Processes (task 1): fixing, reusing, taking care of discarded

Materials (task1): old machinery pieces, scrap steel

Practitioner (task1): My grandfather

Inspiration from the images: Density of object, textures of cables hanging from the shelves, wires and various bolts that resemble machinery, variety of colours to experiment with - a very road colour scheme.



Nadav Kander - Dust - Imagery representing textures I am working with and colours





These landscapes look for me as horizon that melted with air creating never ending block of space. Elements of landscape look like brushstrokes, abstract paintings of air. Also, inspiration for photoshoot location - that would be the ideal landscape to take pictures in, because of the coherent textures and colors.

From: Kander, N., Schleussner, L. and Self, W. (2014). Dust. 1st ed. Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz.

Evelien van Pruissen - Designer reference - embroided elements with fringes






A, A. (n.d.). evelien van pruissen. [image] Available at: [Accessed Apr. 2017].

Textielfbrique, (n.d.). PHOTO © PETER STIGTER. [image] Available at: [Accessed Apr. 2017].

Kinstler, S. (n.d.). Purl on Pearl. [image] Available at: [Accessed Apr. 2017].


Designer reference on how to approach the embroidery idea I have - fringes in the embroidery, delicate yet visible colours, effect of a painting - like embroided elements . Colours respond to my colour scheme as well - this is how this idea I have can be visualized and how it works on the body. However, the elements of my embroidery should represent the mechanisms of machines too - the circular shapes - this can be stronger points of composition.


Patrick Woodyard - Fast Fashion's Effect on People, The Planet and You

"Let's return fashion to what it once was - about the people, about art, about the value of the producer and the planet"

from the talk by Patrick Woodyard

Richard Sennett - Craftsmanship

"People have an intuitive idea that this is not an age of craftsmanship. It's not that craftsmanship is unproductive, or that, you know, beaking bread by hand is going to be replaced by beaking bread by a machine. That, I think, is a trival way of looking at the problem. The problem is that capitalism, as we know it, increasement, today has no interest in craftsmanship."

"Craftsmanship is about building on what you know rather than throwing it out. [...] something which is  not progressive in the sense of a progress with a big "P", but is additivee that you build on your skills. But the capitalists logic of having you throw it out and buy something new, is that what was there before is used up. When you learn how to use it - it is dead almost."

from Richard Sennett's talk in the video above.

These quotations are very relevant to the problem of mass production in fashion - the amount of "new" fashion being produced is driven by capitalists and the urge to make more money. This pollutes the environment and destorys people in many ways. Craftsmanship is just the opposite of that and is seen as something regressive - Richard Sennett proves in his thinking that it is not true. In fact, craftsmanship seen as knowledgable making and consuming can, in the future, bring more of real progress than blind mass production and consumption.

link to Richard Sennetts website:

Cy Twombly - brushstrokes and paint stains look like yarns or fringes; painted air effect




His works look very similar to my colour experimentation before - brushstrokes and dripping paint look like fringes that paint the air. It also makes me think of playfullness and te embroided elements I have done on my samples - visually in terms of colours and textures. Making the garment more playful and fun to wear, adding colorful fringes, splashes of merino wool would make it more painting-like.

all images from: (2017). Cy Twombly - 109 Artworks, Bio & Shows on Artsy. [online] Available at: [Accessed Mar. 2017].

Charity research - Charities supproting development of crafts in modern societies and economy






"We believe that the strength of craft lies in its use of traditional and contemporary techniques, ideas and materials to make extraordinary new work." (2017). Welcome to the Crafts Council. [online] Available at: [Accessed Mar. 2017].

from:Gibson, G., Greenhalgh, I. and Coppard, A. (2017). The Crafts Magazine - The Magazine for Contemporary Craft, (265).




"The Harris Tweed weaver is a true artisan, the master of his loom in the same way a musician relates to his instrument. Each loom will have its own sound, quirks and idiosyncrasies and only the weaver will know how to get the best from it. It may take a weaver hours to ready his loom for weaving a new cloth and once weaving may create four meters of crafted tweed an hour once underway, watching constantly for flaws as they go."

"The rare character of Harris Tweed is attributable to the fact that it is the only fabric produced in commercial quantities by truly traditional methods anywhere in the world."

from: The Harris Tweed Authority. (2017). The Harris Tweed Authority. [online] Available at: [Accessed Mar. 2017].

Harris Tweed is a brand-organization-of-craftsmen that produces tweed just as it was made ages ago. They applied inventions such as mechanical looms or other machinery, but not to change the craftsmen into machines, but to maintain the level of bigger production with regard to craft. The whole process is sustainable and the power of hands is valued more than any other electrical sources of energy. Tension between man and machine is reduced and a harmony of production is created. Proof that it is possible to crate slow but be recognized, it doesn't mean falling behind latest trends. It takes patience and time to produce one meter of tweed at this factory - slow fashion. All those workers are true artists in their craft - like painters.

- Sustainable rural and regional development

- Developing culture, herritage and passion but with regard to modernity

- The loom mechanism is powered by foot and the hands tie, work and repair the cloth as it is being woven; even yarn is hand dyed and hand made


Brand research - Harris Tweed - Crafts and machinery working together - Sustainability


all images from: The Harris Tweed Authority. (2017). The Harris Tweed Authority. [online] Available at: [Accessed Mar. 2017].



"Mathematicians and mechanicians, and in this they are followed by a few English eonomists, call a tool a simple machine, and a machine a complex tool. They see no essential difference between them, and even give the name of machine to the simple mechanical powers, the lever, the inclined plane, the screw, the wedge &c. As a matter of fact, every machine is a combination of those simple powers, no matter how they may be disguised."

"On a closer examination of the working machine proper, we find in it, as a general rule, though often, no doubt, under very altered forms, the apparatus and tools used by the handicraftsman or manufacturing workman; with this difference, that instead of being human implements, they are the emplements of a mechanism, or mechanical implements. Either the entire machine is only more or ledd altered mechanical edition of the old handicraft tool, as for instance, the power-loom [...]"

"Machinery is put to a wrong use, with the object of transforming the workman, from his very childhood, into a part of a detail-machine."

from: Adamson, G. (2016). The craft reader.

Connection of a crarftsman who uses tools to "paint the air with the culture of hands that think" is muh closer to the basic mechanism of a machine than I expected - machine as a combination of craftsmen tools with an external power to move them. The mistake made is to use machines in an destructive way - destructive to people, workers and environment (air pollution for example) as well as history of making (crafts). Slowing down, using machines as a way of help for making not instead - this is a way of reformation.


"The biggest human effects of the Industrial Revolution obviously bore on industrialists and factory workers. But other groups were toutched. Crraft workers, for example, worried about the threat of factory competition in any event, saw their employers putting pressure on them to produce more. Many rural women, who traditionally had produced thread or cloth by hand, were forced out of their jobs by machine-made goods [...]."

from: Stearns, P. (2015). Debating the Industrial Revolution. Bloomsbury Publishing.

In this context the idea of slow factory is a pure juxtaposition of industrial revolution - using the culture of making by hand to "paint the air", so to raise awareness of air pollution caused by mass production. At the same time using crafts to produce highly-detailed goods.Quality over quantity. Inspiration for a muse - all these women who lost their jobs are now glorified by the time consuming, hand making processes. Revolution after revolution.


"The English term "fashion" (or mode in Romance languages) refers to the dynamic of change, one that is bound up with social reationships, and also with the organization of the fashion industry, and an industrialized conception of time that drives capitalism. While fashion can be understood as a collective belief system (see Kawamura 2005) and as a value producing aesthetic economy (see Entwistle 2009), the understanding of fashion as a material culture is here particularly grounded in the ethymology and active meaning of fashion as a verb: "to fashion" [...] which means: to make [...]."

Jenss, H. (n.d.). Fashion studies.

Mass industrial production is a pure effect of capitalism. Fashion as we know it now as well. However, the primar, basic meaning of "to fashion" explains it as making, creating, so much closer to creating fashion by hand and in slow-peaced mode. Slowing down to move forward quicker and more effectively. Moreover, aesthetic economy is purely social element of fashion therefore also the need to be socially conscious.


Engines from Science Museum

A short movie taken by me - proof that machinery paints the air too - the steam from engines is what is painting, makes me think of the nalbinding structure as steam - pale blue, soft steam from machinery.


" By the time he (James Watt) died in 1819, a new technological world was emerging. Factories and mills were spreading through Britain, replacing older craft work. Many were powered by Watt's steam engine."

from the description in the exhibition

That is what Luddities were against - not to replace craft. It should work all alongside machinery and make a symbiosis not a destrucion of one another. The whole revolution started from textiles in both anti and pro industrial way.



James Watt workspace - reminds me of my grandfather's resale shop


images taken by me from Science Museum


"The flame and the explosion was for him perhaps something which embodied the future. I don't think he meant to destruct, to distrupt or to destroy. It was perhaps more the vision to see seemingly redundant material coming togerther in such a constellation that the energy released would be the beginning of that which one has not known. I think he needed to get very vlose to this act of desintegration"

from: Cripps, S., Cripps, S. and Harvey, J. (1992). Stephen Cripps. 1st ed. S.l.: ACME.

The destruction of a machine in this way of perception is not an act of anti-industrialism, which links this way of thinking to the Luddities. It is a start of a recreation of a tension where human and a piece of machinery becomes something new - like with transformend, modern craftsmanship that is an embodiment of it.


Stephen Cripps - exploring the scrap machinery, tension of human and machine


The artist inspired by Jean Tinguely was destroying old machinery to create his own vision of the mechanised world. It reminds me of this tension that Tinguely was able to create in his pieces. Moreover, the fact that it is so dynamic makes me think of the act of painting the air - fireworks looking like frignes, flames painting tthe air around, He himself dressed up in a protective suit looks like worker. Ideas for organizing the shilouettes - think about where the fringes go, like fireworks, just one place. Including more blocky shapes, like the suit. His work was sometimes also focused on social awareness like air pollution or mass production of objects.


Cripps, S., Cripps, S. and Harvey, J. (1992). Stephen Cripps. 1st ed. S.l.: ACME. (2017). Museum Tinguely - On view now and Upcoming. [online] Available at: [Accessed Mar. 2017].



Correllcorrell - studio visit - workspace for sustainable fashion - craftsmanship workshop

From: Ravelin Magazine, (2013). Correll Correll Studio Visit | RAVELIN MAGAZINE. [video] Available at: [Accessed Apr. 2017].

Correllcorrell - sustainable fashion using craftsmanship - great textures - fringes


from: (2017). CORRELLCORRELL. [online] Available at: [Accessed Mar. 2017].

information about the brand found in: Hung, S. and Magliaro, J. (2010). By hand. 1st ed. New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press.


"We combine an emphasis on local suppliers and producers with an experimental approach to traditional forms of production. Our creative vision is based upon reinterpreting the traditional art forms of dying, knitting, weaving and crocheting in the context of cutting edge luxury fashion.
Our holistic approach sees bridging the contrasts between sustainable design and luxury markets, traditional handicrafts and high fashion, environmental responsibility and market competitiveness, as an essential element of innovative design. We are dedicated to the view that sustainable materials and production processes are not an aesthetic limit but an opportunity to develop exciting new directions for the future of fashion."

from: (2017). CORRELLCORRELL. [online] Available at: [Accessed Mar. 2017].

This quotation and the identitiy of the brand sums up my thinking as well and is a reference for contextual background. The fringes on their clother respond to my experimentation and give me an ides of how can I use chunky wool to create textures and fringes with nalbinding or lucet - not a standard crafts aesthetics.


Technical help with fringes - knitweaving


from: Niinimaki, K. (2013). Sustainable Fashion: New Approaches. 1st ed. Helsinki: Aalto ARTS Books.

Contemporary context: craft and sustainability, high quality of a product, symbiosis between craftsmen, art and machinery used - my aims for the project.


Tom Duimstra - Colors matching my color scheme, ideas for mark making




Tom Duimstra. (2017). Tom Duimstra. [online] Available at: [Accessed Mar. 2017].


"My work expands outward from a central point of minimalism, into a world of texture, color, and mark-making."

"The use of ubiquitous materials and discarded objects is important to my artistic process, which involves manipulating and presenting materials in new contexts."

from: Tom Duimstra. (2017). Tom Duimstra. [online] Available at: [Accessed Mar. 2017].

I have chosen his wwork because the colors remind me of my color scheme and the mark making resembles destroyed machinery in my opinion. It is not his purpose to show any parts of machines but it looks like this to my personal taste. Mark making references for print ideas.


"The designer is, therefore, centre stage in the consumer society. By contrast, the craftsperson plays a relatively minor role in the theather of consumption in economic terms, but an important one in symbolic and rethorical terms. To many people the attraction of a craft object resides in its explicit identification with values which are as compelling today as they were in William Morris's time: social continuity, personal creativity and fulfilment through making."

"Like Morris, functionalists believed that the ethical, as well as the aesthetics value of an object is derived from the way it is made."

from:Dormer, P. (2010). The culture of craft. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Craft is an important element of industrial society, because of the fundamental values it carries. Using craft for sustainable development can benefit progress of fashion not only in terms of sustainability but  also in the context of authenticity and meaning it has - mass industrialized production is only a photocopy of fashion (according to Giovanni Bonotto's philosophy as well).



I have chosen to destroy old fax, because my grandfather used to have lot of them in his workspace. Also I wanted to get some interesting shape references for further experimentation. Possibly shilouette ideas - idea of reusing old pieces of machinery as something new - as a shilouette.

credits: all fax experiment documentation taken by me


Experiment - destroying old fax

Experiment - destroying old fax

Leutton Postle - SS 12

from: brightonART, (2011). Leutton-Postle SS12 Full Show. [video] Available at: [Accessed Apr. 2017].

Designers research - Leutton Postle - Details



Reeve, H. (n.d.). Jenny Postle. [image] Available at: [Accessed Apr. 2017].

Chilcott, L. (n.d.). Jenny Postle. [image] Available at: [Accessed Apr. 2017].

Designers research - Leutton Postle


credits: (2011). Vauxhall Fashion Scout announces Leutton Postle as Merit Award Winner SS12. [online] Available at: [Accessed Mar. 2017].

This brand relates to my research because:

- All designs are craft heavy, everything is hand made, they balance hand knitting with machine knitting

- The garments are rich in textures and look like assembled (my idea of using old knits, shapes of Leger)

- Fringes (I am also using them)

- Colours (My colour scheme now is very similar to this one)

- Ideas how the aesthetics could work now


Tool shapes that remind me of my grandfather's tools in the resale shop


Ideas for details - the garment could have details inspired by machinery details too. Bolts - idea for buttons, edges.


Gross, K., Stone, J. and Love, R. (1994). Tools. London: Thames and Hudson.


Looking at elements that construct a machine - shape references



Parmley, R. (2006). Machine devices and components illustrated sourcebook. Norwich, NY: Knovel.


Shape ideas - using elements of machine shapes to highlight the tension of hand and machine made - hand made textiles with machine shapes.


Bonotto - examples of textiles - textures, patterns and colours



Bonotto_official, (2016), Grazie,, acess: March 2017

Louisa Bertoldo, (2015), Curious about the new SS16 trends? Come to the Bonotto stands at Milano Unica and discover how we create them,, acess: March 2017


Eduardo Paolozzi - collages - inspiring textures and markmaking that reminds me of my experimentation in sketchbook

Eduardo Paolozzi - Witechapel Gallery - texture inspiration - association to machinery

Eduardo Paolozzi - drawings resembling armour with elements for machines - possibility of development

Charity research - Michaelangelo Foundation

"Respect for exceptional workmanship that embodies culture and place, and preserving and protecting the boundless creativity of human beings in a rapidly changing world."

Johann Rupert, the head of the Foundation about it's principles

Practitioner (task1): Johann Rupert


Paton, E. (2016) New foundation, backed by a luxury Titan, focuses on craftsmanship. Available at: (Accessed: 24 February 2017).



"Rooted in a tradition of culture and excellence and in the realities and challenges of today’s global economy, the Foundation seeks to support men and women who dedicate themselves to the pursuit of master craftsmanship and to foster a new cultural movement built around the values that are essential for their work."

from the statement about mission of the Foundation


FondazioneCologni (no date) The Michelangelo Foundation. Available at: (Accessed: 24 February 2017).

Mission of this Foundation is a reference to the idea of using traditional medieval craftsmanship techniques to raise the question of the effects of mass production. It also unites craftsmen and women with artists and designers in order to change the approach to craftsmanship as an alternative and effective method of production, which is a reference to my thinking of this project. Any other sources of information about this charity are uploaded on bibliography page.




Royal Armoury Collection - Observing details in armours - ideas for details, buttons, straps





images taken by me


Victoria and Albert Museum


Armour as crafts - sketches from a medieval cookbook for amours. Idea of looking at crafts more.


images taken by me


Polish Typical Armour - Hussar's Armour and Karacena


Polish typical armour (later than medieval) - Hussar - the one with wings to scare the assasins.

Karacena - the one without wings but with little steel plates to resemble snake or dragon.

The construstion of armour which is made from steel is a connection of both protection and magical appliances of steel - it protects (phisically) and mentally (scares). Idea of creating a protective armour against air pollution.


Bujak, A. and Piekarczyk, J. (1995) Stary Krakow. 3rd edn. Warszawa: Sport i Turystyka.


Inspiration from Cambridge - Steel applied to the body, protecting from evil - Armour





Hewitt, J. (1860) Ancient armour and weapons in Europe : from the Iron period of the northern nations to the end of the seventeenth century. Supplement edn. 1860: London : Henry & Parker.


Cambridge - King's College Chapel

King's College Chapel in Cambridge:

- knights armour as a way of protection from air pollution - steel (iron) as an element that has magical meaning of protection

- colours on stained glass resemble Astroemeria flowers

- stained glass reminds me of colored pieces of glass in my grandfather's resale shop (see images below) and greenhouses

- Cracow is also a medieval city, so the atmosphere of Cambridge reminded me of Cracow (only the air is clean)

- armour was all made by hand from a material that is 100% recyclable - craftmanship as an alternative way of production to reduce air pollution.

Processes (task1): protecting, joining

Material (task1): armour, glass


image credits:

photos taken by me


Astroemeria - Flower modified by human previously growing in the buildings of the resale shop


This is Astroemeria - a flower that my grandfather harvested in the same buildings were the resale shop was. Previously this shop was a greenhouse. This flower comes from Holland and it is modified by human - it is based on a flower from Chile but the one my grandfather was harvesting was entierly man made. He was the first person in Poland to have this flower and sell it. It links to the idea of hypernature, changes in the landscape and connection of man and nature. Greenhouse is an artificial connection between man and nature, it protects hypernature. Another set of colors to experiment with - inspired by the flowers.

Processes (task1): modification, manipulation of nature


Cebule kwiatowe, cebulki kwiatów sklep internetowy - (no date) Available at: (Accessed: 16 February 2017).


D.T. Hanson - WasteLand


All of these images show the pollution in the landscape that is generated by human. They are very similar to those by Nicholas Fauer. The most inspiring aspect of these are colours - look almost unnatural, glowing, the pollution is highlighter, darker tones next to lighter ones and more vibrant yet bright. The colors are trulls mesmerizing.

Chimneys with smoke - remind me of the picture of steel mill workers - dust in the air, particles floating around in the air.

Practitioner (task 1): D.T. Hanson

Process (task1): floating in the air


Image credits:

Hanson, D.T., Berry, W., Dowie, M. and Kittredge, W. (1997) Waste land: Meditations on a ravaged landscape. New York: Aperture.


Beata Moore - Cracow



Moore, B. (2006) Cracow. Frances Lincoln.


These images are from Cracow - a documentation of the fact that it really is a serious issue. The man with a horse plunging the field reminds me of the man with the Toyota car - that is exactly what is meant by changing world around us and design, stuff that changes our environment. 


Bruno Barbey - Field in Cracow



Milosz, C., Barbey, B., Milosz, C., Barbey, photographs by B. and anthology compiled by Jan Krok-Paszkowski (1982) Portrait of Poland. Edited by Jan Krok-Paszkowski. London: Thames and Hudson.


Tony Cragg - Cloud


This sculpture literally shows what are these clouds made of. Ironic title makes me think of a cloud factory. He uses social awareness elements in many of his works - that is what I want to do in my work too.

Practitioner (task1): Tony Cragg

Image credits:

Celant, G., Eccher, D., Cragg, T., Trento and Italy) Centro servizi culturali S. Chiara (Trento (1993) Tony Cragg. Italy: Edizioni Charta Srl.


"Our natural environment is replaced by a world of design"

"Human design has made nature more natural than ever: it is now  hypernatural. It is a simulation of nature that never existed.[...]."


van Mensvoort, K., Grievink, H.-J., Sterling, B., Kevin, K., Lunenfeld, P. and Mensvoort, van (2011) Next nature: Nature changes along with us. Spain: ACTAR COAC ASSN OF CATALAN ARC.

This quotation makes me think of a world replaced almost completely by design, people will disappear in stuff they made. Why do we need this much? Is there a way to slow down and prevent us from creating hypernature that would pollute world completely?


Lucas Foglia - "A Natural Order"


In Tthese images I see exactly what the quotation from "Next Nature" says. We changed our landscapes into a world of design. Factories become artificial forests (because of the chimneys) or rivers (because of the shapes they create in the landscape). These images are an ironic comment on the hypernature - how far  did it go and how far can it go?


Foglia, L. (2013) A natural order. New York, NY, United States: Nazraeli Press.


Jeremy Millar Photogrraphs - Details of Machines


Close ups for machinery details that remind me of what I used to see in my grandfather's resale shop. A lot of wires and steel. A lot of elements that form this industrail mess.

Inspiration from the pictures: twisted cables, machine elements, steel details - perhaps use them in experimenting with shilouettes, carefully, do not make robots

Chosen materials to research: steel and wires, elements of machines or scrap metals

Processes (task 1): twisting , manipulating wires

Practitioner (task1): Jeremy Millar


Fraser, P. and Millar, J. (2002) Peter Fraser. London: The Photographers? Gallery.


Magnum Photos - Steel Mill in Cracow


Three workers - like on Wiktor Gorka's poster. People behind the machinery - there is always the human element regardless of what size or scale the machines are. Another working space. Interesting is the smoke around workers - the pollutiion flying in the air - dust, little particles around. All of the images represent also a working environment - so different from my grandather's one.



Carl de Keyzer, Erich Lessing, Robert Capa, Mark Power;

Magnum photos home (2014) Available at: (Accessed: 19 February 2017).


Nowa Huta in the 80s and 90s - development of technology and working space


Inspiration from the picture: Technology is changing but these are still the people who are behind all machinery.

Process (task1): human interacting with machinery

image cradits:

ArcelorMittal Poland (2002) Available at: (Accessed: 10 February 2017).


Nowa Huta now - inspiring colors and textures of industrial elements - development of technology but the air stays polluted


Inspiration from the pictures: Textures of steel constructions, various shapes of these

image cradits:

ArcelorMittal Poland (2002) Available at: (Accessed: 10 February 2017).


Steel Mill in the 50s - interesting steel construction elements - cumulation of elements


Inspiration from the pictures: similar density of steel elements like in my grandfather's shop.

image cradits:

ArcelorMittal Poland (2002) Available at: (Accessed: 10 February 2017).


Working space - patterns and textures in the background

Steel Mill - Huta Sedzimira or more common Nowa Huta is one of the air contaminators in Cracow. The machines and steel elements that my grandfather was selling came also from this place. It is still working, due to income it generates noone seems to care about it.

What I find interesting on these photographs, that is common to the pictures from my grandfathers resale shop is the density of elements in various sizes and shapes. Industrial mess. Unorganized space. Traces of work that is happening around (surroundings of work).

The images above come from the archive on official webside of the factory. They depict the very beginning of the work in 1950s. At the beginning the factory was composed from few different blocks and was a symbol of Soviet utopian theories and idea of work for the Soviet Union - a gift from Soviets to the people.

image cradits:

ArcelorMittal Poland (2002) Available at: (Accessed: 10 February 2017).



Kraftwerk performing in Nowa Huta factory - sounds I associate with my childhood memories from grandfathers resale shop

Kraftwerk - Pocket Calculator

Kraftwerk - The Robots

Association with the mood of the resale shop of my grandfather - Kraftwerk (practitioners (task1)) is a music band my father showed me when I was little. Their main inspiration is technology, robots and machinery. The sounds of their music remind me of the sounds I heared in the resale shop while the machines were being fixed.

Inspiration from the music: If I would ever make an actual catwalk for this project this would be the music in the background.


Identifying sources of pollution - industry

"Pollution can be defined as the release of unwanted by-products of industrial production that degrade the quality of the natural or social environment. This release can be to air, water and soil, but noise pollution, light pollution, visual pollution and radioactivity can also be distinguished. Pollution can harm flora, fauna, and human health to such an extent that extinction occurs. Substances, often non-existent in the natural environment, are added in such quantities that balances in the biosphere are disturbed. Although the proof is never easy to deliver, pollution is widely acknowledged to be responsible for negatively affecting quality of life and even mortality rates. Pollution can cause cancer, allergies and all kinds of forms of asthma, among other things."



de Bruijn, T. (2010). Pollution. In W. Visser, D. Matten, M. Pohl & et. al., The a to z of corporate social responsibility. [Online]. Hoboken: Wiley. Available from: [Accessed 10 February 2017].


Air condition in Cracow - the steel mill chimneys covered with smog visible on the horizon


Prtoric, J. (2014) ‘Fighting for clean air in Krakow’, 27 April. Available at: (Accessed: 10 February 2017).


City where I was born - Cracow is one of the most polluted cities in the World. In 2017th it was ranked 115th from 329 cities on the list. Higher than previously. It is more polluted than London or Paris eventhough is 5 times smaller than London. The pollution is very dense and accumulated on a relatively small area which results in even bigger contamination.


Ranking of 2017 from:

Adamovic, M. (2009) Pollution index by city 2017. Available at: (Accessed: 10 February 2017).


The article credited below puts most of the facts about the air pollution in Cracow together. The major reasons for the contamination are:

  • domestic solid fuel furnaces
  • motor vehicles
  • local industry (two big factories - local sounds in my opinion too humble)
  • air-borne pollutants from other parts of Poland and neighbouring countries
  • geographical factors

For me the most interesting reason for the pollution are the factories. They are not working on as big scale as they were before, yet noone seems to care about the contamination that comes from them and majority of people says it is the lack of wind. Though I want to look closer to this topic - my garndfather was selling machines and part of machines that came from these factories. (After they were broken he bought them, fixed and sold again - a certain kind of recycling of machines, taking care of what is discarded, forgotten).


article credits:

Stokes, J. (2015) Krakow’s air quality among the worst in the world. Available at: (Accessed: 10 February 2017).






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